Japanese hanging scrolls, also known as kakejiku, are a traditional form of art that has been practiced in Japan for centuries. These scrolls are designed to be hung on the wall and are typically made up of a piece of cloth or paper with a painting or calligraphy inscription on it.
Hanging scrolls have a long history in Japan, dating back to the Nara period (710-794). During this time, Chinese influence on Japan was strong, and hanging scrolls were introduced to Japan as a way to display Chinese calligraphy and paintings. Over time, Japanese artists began to develop their own style of hanging scrolls, incorporating their own unique cultural and artistic influences.
There are a few key elements that make up a traditional Japanese hanging scroll. The first is the mounting, which refers to the way the painting or calligraphy is attached to the scroll. This is done using a combination of silk or paper strips and glue, and the mounting is an important part of the overall aesthetic of the scroll.
The second key element is the scroll itself, which is typically made of a stiff material like bamboo or wood. The scroll serves as a frame for the painting or calligraphy and is an important part of the overall presentation of the piece.
Finally, the painting or calligraphy itself is the centerpiece of the hanging scroll. Traditional Japanese paintings often feature natural landscapes, such as mountains, waterfalls, and cherry blossoms. Calligraphy is also a common subject for hanging scrolls, and can range from simple phrases to more elaborate poetry or prose.
One unique aspect of Japanese hanging scrolls is the way they are displayed. Unlike Western paintings, which are typically hung at eye level, Japanese hanging scrolls are often hung higher up on the wall, with the bottom of the scroll around eye level. This creates a sense of verticality and emphasizes the height of the room.
Another important aspect of Japanese hanging scrolls is the way they are viewed. Traditional Japanese homes are designed with tokonoma, or alcoves, where hanging scrolls and other art pieces are displayed. The tokonoma is meant to be a place of contemplation and meditation, and hanging scrolls are often viewed from a seated position on the floor, allowing the viewer to take in the full effect of the piece.
Today, Japanese hanging scrolls continue to be an important part of Japanese art and culture. While the traditional techniques and styles have been passed down through generations, contemporary artists are also experimenting with new forms and materials, pushing the boundaries of what a hanging scroll can be. Whether they are displayed in a traditional tokonoma or a modern art gallery, Japanese hanging scrolls continue to capture the imagination and inspire contemplation and reflection.